Directorate of Farms
Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state in the country in terms of area with a total geographical area of 308 lakh hectares, constituting 9 percent of the total geographic area of the country. It ranks sixth with a total population of 72 million, out of which 72% resides in rural area. The state is known for its abundant natural resources including forest, minerals, rivers and valleys. There are 11 agro-climatic zones, five crop zones and varying land use, soil types, rainfall and water resources, distributed across 51 districts in the state. Also, a significant proportion of tribals and dalits reside in the state together comprising 35% of the total state population.
The state economy of Madhya Pradesh is predominantly rural and agrarian in nature. Agriculture sector is the mainstay of the state’s economy and is the only sector providing employment and livelihood options to majority of the rural population in the state. According to Census 2011, 69.8% of the total workers and 85.6% of the total workers in rural areas are largely dependent on agriculture for livelihood in Madhya Pradesh. This comprises 31.2% cultivators and 38.6% agriculture labours. The sector is also contributing 24.9% to State’s GDP at constant prices (2004-05 prices) and 33.6% at current prices. Hence, the positive and consistent growth rate of this sector is of immense importance to drive the state economy, especially the rural economy. It also it has a great potential in influencing the state as well as the national economy in environmentally sustaining ways.
There are numerous empirical evidence showcasing the correlation of positive agriculture growth and socio-economic development status of the citizens by way of making a dent on poverty, ensuring food and nutritional security, raising income levels and employment opportunities etc. It is also true that a thriving rural livelihood will lead to more refined urban life by reducing the migration from rural areas and putting less pressure on urban infrastructure and services.
Ø Seed Production System of JNKVV
Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya is the primer Institution for seed production and distribution in the country. It caters around 15% of breeder seed requirement of the nation. Our customers include National and State Seed Corporations, State Farms Corporation of India, State Department of Agriculture, Horticulture & Farm Forestry and Animal Husbandry, State Seed Corporative, KRIBHCO, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India, National Dairy Development Board, Bharat Krishak Samaj, National and multinational seed companies, progressive farmers, Oil Federations and several organizations directly/indirectly involved in seed production activities. The University has attained expertise in production, processing and management of seeds of cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fodder seeds, vegetables, spices, sugarcane, medicinal and aromatic plants seed within the well conceived frame work of “Single Window System” of operation.
At JNKVV, the important features of the seed production programme are the maintenance breeding and effective internal monitoring system. Diversification of nucleus/ breeder seed production programme with a view to meet the growing demand of quality seed and planting material of vegetables, spices, sugarcane, medicinal and aromatic plants as well as mushroom spawn production have added new dimensions. The seed production programme is reviewed at Vishwa Vidyalaya level during Kharif/ Rabi seasons every year. The University has also initiated need based training programme for senior / middle level seed professionals from State Agriculture Universities (SAU), State Department of Agriculture, State Seed Corporations, State Seed Certification Agencies, National and multinational seed companies with a view to upto-date knowledge on seed technology, seed certification standards covering all important and relevant aspects of seed production, processing and storage.
JNKVV has 1207.48 ha of cultivated land available for research and seed production activities . Out of this, around 828.08 ha of land is being put under the seed production, mainly at the following research stations: (i) ZARS, Jabalpur (ii) ZARS, Rewa (iii) ZARS, Powarkheda (iv) ZARS, Tikamgarh etc. These centers are adequately equipped for seed production. There is need to accelerate the pace of farm mechanization, improve seed processing, irrigation and storage facilities at other production centers. Production and management of quality seed is one of the major activity of JNKVV. In all, 30 farms are in operation covering six agro-climatic zones .
Ø Functioning of Single Window System
The execution of system envisages planning, production, monitoring, processing, marketing and supply of seeds to the indenters from a single window. It is being operated through Directorate of Farms of the University. The system has been effective for the successful implementation of seed production programme. The Nodal Centers for the programme is under operation at Jabalpur with three satellite centres viz., Rewa, Tikamgarh and Powarkhed located at Zonal Agriculture Research Stations.
Ø Support from ICAR
Financial assistance has been made available from ICAR under National Seed Project since the year 1983. The project has also been strengthened in terms of infrastructure and man power in the year 1993. The project has developed the large operational system which utilizes the internal scientific/technical resources of the University to produce high quality breeder seed. The system is strongly supported by maintenance breeding programme. The main sources of funding are:
- Field Crops – ICAR
- Soybean & Groundnut – GOI
- Spices – Govt. of MP & GOI
- Medicinal & Aromatics – GOI
- Mega Seed Project – ICAR
- Seed Legume Project – GOI
- Seed Village Project – ICAR
- Tribal Sub Plan – ICAR
- Scheduled Cast Sub Plan- ICAR
- RKVY- GOI
- Additional Breeder Seed Production of Pulses (ABSP)- GOI
- Additional Breeder Seed Production of Millets Crops- GOI
The University has been selected as one of the major participating institutions in the breeder seed production programme of GoI.
Ø Seed Production Planning
Seed production programmes of all the crops are being planned based on indents of national and state seed corporation through ICAR, private seed sector, seed market intelligence reports and based on previous year sales and demands. The total indent of all the sectors put together is being planned on the basis of suitability of the selected varieties to different agro-climatic zones of MP. The entire production programme is being developed with the consent of officer-in-charge of farms and controlling officer at zonal level every year. The change in programme is permissible subject to the approval of Directorate of Farms. The programme includes :
Ø Crop improvement
A dynamic seed sector can be developed with continuous release of improved varieties and hybrids from crop research programmes. To ensure the crop research programmes, strong support is provided from the State so that superior varieties and hybrids can be developed. Hence, due to continuous efforts every year a large number of varieties are released at State as well as at National level.
Ø Seed production programme
Jawahar Seed is being produced from Breeder Seed in the area after the coverage of nucleus/breeder seed by employing standerd quality mechanism in the seed multiplication chain.
Ø Seed extension activities
The surplus breeder/Jawahar seed of improved varieties of various crops is being made available to the farmers to create seed demands.
Ø Seed distribution mechanisms
The breeder seed produced is being supplied against the indents. The surplus breeder seed is being made available to indenters on first cum first served basis. Jawahar seed is being supplied directly to the farmers through seed counters of the university at a reasonable cost.
Ø Maintenance Breeding
The maintenance breeding is one of the important activities of seed production programme of the University. The programme involves a dedicated team of crop scientists located at various research stations to maintain the varieties. Crop varieties are being maintained by Single Plant Selection (SPS) grown in progeny rows. The SPS bulk seed is multiplied to produce breeder seed depending up on the indents.
Ø Size of Seed Production Programme
|Medicinal & aromatics
Ø Public-Private Partnerships
JNKVV has implemented the benefit sharing of the public sector breeds with the private sector. There seems to be a tremendous potential to develop the seed links programme of public/private sector. This helps in developing/strengthening research resources and adequate resource income to University. An MOU has been developed for the purpose. This MOU is as per the guidelines of IPR Management for Agriculture Research Technologies of NARS and approved by Board of Management of University. Seed companies showed interest for commercialization of early maturing Rice hybrids on non exclusive basis. Similarly in medicinal and aromatic plants partnerships are being developed through three-party agreement i.e., JNKVV, farmers and industry on mutually agreeable terms and conditions. A Business Planning Development Unit of the University has been established to care of transferable technologies for commercialization of Seed Production, Medicinal & Aromatics, Biofertilizer technologies etc
The accomplishments that made JNKVV, Jabalpur as best Breeder Seed Production Centre in the Country
||MoU with Seed Company from 2009 to 2020, No.
||Vibha Agrotech Limited
||Super Agri Seeds
||Dantewada Seeds Pvt. Ltd
||Delta Seed Company
||Manish Agritech Pvt. Ltd.
||DCM Shriram Consolidated Ltd.
||Trimurti Plant Sciences Ltd.
||Pandharinath Seed society
- The centre has been continuing to be the best in total breeder seed production at national level. Out of 119293 quintels breeder seed produced at national level, JNKVV contributed 16922 quintels. However, a few down fall in seed production of few soybean varieties observed due to failure of crops at some centres due to out brust of disease and water stress.
- The centre has also executed the well planned programme on technology dissemination. Specially various new innovative technologies including hybrid seed production in rice, maize and arhar has been disseminated to the farmers through farmers participatory and capacity building programmes.
- The farmers participatory hybrid rice seed production programme has imparted economical benefit to the farmers which reflected at state level by increas total production and productivity.
- The centre has also created few new infrastructure specially threshing floor, farm implements, implement shade, seed processing unit and mega seed store.
Impact and Conclusion
Taking all this into account, the State Government has been very keen and proactive in taking several decisions and measures to make agriculture both remunerative and sustainable. A mix of appropriate policy decisions, innovative strategies and concrete programmatic interventions in this direction has paved the way for better performance of the sector in the past few years and yielded good results in terms of achievements. Some of the key achievements in agriculture and allied sector for the state of Madhya Pradesh are highlighted as given below.
- The State of Madhya Pradesh has now become one of the leading states in the country by exhibiting agriculture growth rate of 9.04% during the 11th Five Year Plan as against the targeted annual growth rate of 5 percent and national average of 2.48%
- The state has also improved its position as the third largest wheat producing state in the country after Punjab and UP with a record-break production of 14.18 million tonnes of wheat in the financial year 2014-15.
- Madhya Pradesh not only has it outperformed the national average of 2.48% of agriculture growth, but also stood first in the country by achieving unprecedented 18.89% growth in the farm sector including agriculture, animal husbandry and fisheries. Madhya Pradesh also became a pioneer in constituting seed producer cooperative societies on a large scale to ensure increase in availability of seeds.
- Continuing the growth trajectory. Madhya Pradesh agriculture growth rate for 2014-15 remained at 13.90% and overall GSDP at 16.86%. Between 2000-01 and 2014-15, agri-GDP (gross domestic product) for MP grew at an annual average rate of 9.4%. This is far higher than the all-India average of 3.3% between 2000-01 and 2014-15. It shows that Madhya Pradesh has witnessed the high gowth rate in agriculture in the last two years. This is one of the credible achievements, because generally the growth rate nosedives in the subsequent year of exceptionally high growth rate.
- Madhya Pradesh also became a pioneer state in constituting seed producer cooperative societies at large scale to ensure increase in availability of seed by becoming the largest producer of certified seed. During the year 2003 total certified seed production in the state was 19.29 lakh quintal which increased to 43.95 lakh quintal in 2013. As of now, Madhya Pradesh is the top seed producer in the country.
- With the highest growth in total food grain production, Madhya Pradesh received prestigious national “Krishi Karman” award for five consecutive year.
- Seed is the vehicle of prosperity. It is a basic input for the sustainable agriculture. Quality of the seed has always been considered as of prime importance.
- For the continued and assured supply of quality seed, (SAUs and ICAR Institutes) get equal opportunity to produce and distribute the Breeder Seed of all the crop/varieties irrespective of origin, provided the minimum seed certification standards are followed.
- Better understanding between SAUs/ ICAR Institute and Seed Producing Agencies including Cooperative Societies provide sufficient quantity of quality seed at times under the stress condition.
- Public Private Sector Partnership should be encouraged in the state to cater the demand of high volume low cost seed sector.